Notes: Paterson is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the United States 2000 Census, the city population was 149,222. Census population projections indicate a population of 154,463 as of 2005, making it New Jersey's third largest city. It is the county seat of Passaic County.GR6 Paterson is known as the Silk City for its dominant role in silk production during the latter 19th century.
Paterson was originally formed as a township from portions of Acquackanonk Township on April 11, 1831, while the area was still part of Essex County. Paterson became part of the newly-created Passaic County on February 7, 1837. Paterson was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1851, based on the results of a referendum held that day. The city was reincorporated on March 14, 1861.
In 1791, Alexander Hamilton helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (S.U.M.), which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic, to secure economic independence from British manufacturers. Paterson, which was founded by the society, became the cradle of the industrial revolution in America. Paterson was named for William Paterson, Governor of New Jersey, statesman, and signer of the Constitution.
French architect, engineer, and city planner Pierre L'Enfant, who developed the plans for Washington, D.C., was the first superintendent for the S.U.M. project. He devised a plan, which would harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. However, the society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget. He was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less-complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794. Eventually, Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846. L'Enfant, meanwhile, brought his city plans with him when he designed Washington, and that city's layout resembles the plan he wanted to develop for Paterson.
The industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot high Great Falls, and a system of water raceways that harnessed the power of the falls. The city began growing around the falls and until 1914 the mills were powered by the waterfalls. The district originally included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and later, the firearms, silk, and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 1800s, silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City." In 1835, Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, although within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut. Later in the 19th century, Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by inventor John Holland. Two of Holland's early models — one found at the bottom of the Passaic River — are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in a former mill near the Passaic Falls.
The city was a mecca for immigrant laborers who worked in its factories as well. Paterson was also the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, and the six-month long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions, but was defeated by the employers with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills. The factories then moved south where there were no labor unions and later overseas.
In 1932, Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 7,500-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, a former Paterson mayor. Hinchliffe originally served as the site for high school and semi-professional athletic events. From 1933 to 1945, Hinchliffe became the home of the New York Black Yankees of the Negro National League, as well as the venue for many football games, track and field events, boxing matches and shows, including those done by Abbott and Costello. In the 1970s, Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium and utilized it for public school events until 1997. Currently, Hinchliffe stadium is in a state of disrepair. However, Hinchliffe is one of only two Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States.
World War II helped a little, when Paterson played an important part in the aircraft engine industry. By the end of WWII however there was a decline in urban areas and Paterson was no exception. Since the 1970s the city has been plagued with high unemployment rates. By 1980, Paterson was one of the most distressed cities in the United States. The city no longer has a single movie theater or a motor vehicles office, its major department stores have closed, and the social indices of despair — childhood AIDS, unemployment, homelessness, illiteracy, and graduation rates — all moved in the wrong direction during the unrivaled prosperity of the 1990s economic boom. The failing schools have since been taken over by the state.
Once a premier shopping and leisure destination of northern New Jersey, competition from the malls in upscale neighboring towns like Wayne and Paramus have forced the big-chain stores out of Paterson’s downtown. The biggest industries are now small businesses because the factories have moved overseas. However, the city still, as always, attracts many immigrants. Many of these immigrants have revived the city's economy especially through small businesses.
The downtown area was struck by massive fires several times, the most recent of which occurred in 1991. In this fire, a near full city block (bordered on the north and south by Main and Washington Street and on the east and west by Ellison Street and College Boulevard, a stretch of Van Houten Street that is dominated by Passaic County Community College) was engulfed in flames due to an electrical fire in the basement of a bar. The area was so badly damaged that most of the burned buildings were demolished, with an outdoor mall standing in their place. The most notable of the buildings to be destroyed was the Meyer Brothers department store, which was one of the few remaining department stores in the city.
Lambert Castle Museum
Lambert Castle was built in 1893 as the home of Catholina Lambert, the self-made owner of a prominent silk mill in the City of Paterson. Constructed in the Medieval Revival architectural style, Mr. Lambert's dream was to build a home reminiscent of the castles in Great Britain that he remembered from his boyhood years.
After Lambert's death in 1923, his family sold the building to the City of Paterson, which in turn sold it to the County of Passaic a few years later. The County of Passaic used the building for administrative offices, and in 1936, provided one room to the fledgling Passaic County Historical Society to serve as its historical museum. As time went by the museum grew, room by room, until the entire first floor became the historical museum.
In the late 1990s, the Castle underwent a multi-million dollar restoration and all four floors of the building were developed into a museum and library. Today, the County of Passaic remains the owner of the building and generously supports the facilities' operation; however, the Passaic County Historical Society is solely responsible for the operation and management of Lambert Castle Museum with its historical period rooms, long-term and changing exhibition galleries, educational programs for elementary and middle-school students, and research library/archive. The private, membership-supported, non-profit Passaic County Historical Society owns the historical artifacts, artwork and archives in Lambert Castle Museum. This unique public-private partnership enables the residents of Passaic County to have a historical museum to proudly call their own.
As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 149,222 people, 44,710 households, and 33,353 families residing in the city. With a population density of 6,826.4/km² (17,675.4/mi²), Paterson is the fourth most densely populated large city (i.e., with a population of 100,000 or more) in the United States, only after New York City. However, this figure is somewhat misleading, since Newark's population density, if its airport and seaport lands are excluded, is significantly higher than Paterson's if they are included. These exceptions make Newark's density slightly higher than that of Paterson, which does not have any such facilities.
There were 47,169 housing units at an average density of 2,157.8/km² (5,587.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 32.90% African American, 30.77% White, 0.60% Native American, 1.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 27.60% from other races, and 6.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.11% of the population.
There were 44,710 households out of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 26.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.4% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.71.
In the city the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,778, and the median income for a family was $35,420. Males had a median income of $27,911 versus $22,733 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,257. About 19.2% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.0% of those under age 18 and 19.1% of those age 65 or over. City/Town : Latitude: 40.915498, Longitude: -74.162927